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Adventures in online punctuation (and other grammatical quirks)

Whenever my written English falls below a certain standard, red and green wavy lines magically appear to tell me where my deficiencies lie. Sometimes I’m grateful for the advice, but at other times I bristle. The computer might think that it knows best, but hey – maybe I done got it wrong on purpose? Oh, …

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Whenever my written English falls below a certain standard, red and green wavy lines magically appear to tell me where my deficiencies lie.

Sometimes I’m grateful for the advice, but at other times I bristle. The computer might think that it knows best, but hey – maybe I done got it wrong on purpose? Oh, here we go again: “The past participle verb ‘done’ has been used without an auxiliary verb,” says my vigilant automated assistant, noticing straight away that something is grammatically “up”. But its haughty, zero tolerance approach rubs me up the wrong way.

So I done got it wrong? Whatever.

I done had an omelette. I done went to the launderette. Putting the word ‘done’ before the past tense of a verb makes me happy for reasons I can’t fully explain. I do it a lot, partly for my own pleasure, partly in the hope that it’s appreciated by other people who like the way language can be pulled and pushed into ridiculous shapes.

But aside from the mild amusement this kind of thing brings about, we also do it to give our sentences meaning and colour that simply can’t be conveyed by “proper” English, Standard English, English as a computer understands it. Riding roughshod and carefree over the oh-so- strict rules of spelling, punctuation and grammar can often help us to communicate more effectively, with verve, wit and flair.

You’ll find no shortage of examples on the internet, where messaging services, online forums and social media are littered with millions of beautiful and perfectly intentional grammatical boobs. We live in a wonderful world where the word ZOMG once gained currency as an expression of mock surprise (“oh my god”) simply because people would accidentally hit the Z rather than the SHIFT key before typing “OMG”. This common mistake led to ironic imitation, which in turn led to ZOMG being quietly incorporated, almost by necessity, into a language which has never had any officially approved way of denoting sarcasm.

Over the years, a number of linguists have tried to address this omission with various symbols – the reversed question mark, the inverted exclamation mark — but nothing works better than good, honest rule breaking: excessive capitalisation, shoehorned “quotation marks” or deliberately incorrect spelling.

Not even the definite article, the most common word in the English language, can escape being manhandled by people trying to express themselves. “TEH can be used in front of a verb in a novel form of gerund,” Wikipedia informs us, “and has the ability to turn nearly any word into an intensified noun… Thus, the phrase “this sucks” can be converted into “this is teh suck.”

(My computer is underlining the word “teh”. I’m ignoring it. It feels good.)

Scholars are split on this stuff. While some English professors might dismiss the “bleak, bald, sad shorthand”; of online communication, others believe that our grammatical tinkering is ushering in a new era of experimentation and enhanced clarity.

In 2009, Andrea Lunsford, an English professor at Stanford University, analysed thousands of pieces of writing by college students over a period of five years – essays, emails, online chats – and concluded that we were undergoing a literary revolution “the like of which we haven’t seen since Greek civilization”.

New shades of meaning

The students were becoming more skilled, she believed, at tailoring messages to their audience and the various media they were using. Rather than despoiling language, they were becoming better at communicating and better understood. And if that process happened to fracture some of the rules of English grammar and punctuation, well, is that such a bad thing?

Back in 1989, the linguist Michael Halliday outlined two contrasting approaches to punctuation: you either do it according to grammar, or according to phonology. In other words, either a syntactic approach, where you stick to the rules as laid out in the grammar textbooks, or the prosodic, where your punctuation is guided by the way the words sound when read aloud.

In the last thirty years, however, online communication has thrown up a third, more playful method, where punctuation (or a lack of it) is used to create whole new shades of meaning. It’s not all intentional, of course. The breathless, punctuation-free message we receive from someone texting while trying to catch a train is a consequence of stress, while the “can’t be bothered to punctuate” tweet of the hyper-cool millennial is constructed to convey just the right amount of nonchalance. They look very similar, and neither contain any full stops, but for very different reasons.

The changing role of the full stop, or period, has been lamented in the media on several occasions, with writers proclaiming “the death of the full stop” and wondering how society could possibly cope with the fall out.

The answer, of course, is “just fine”. Freed of the obligation to use them at the end of every sentence, we have a bit of fun with them instead, deploying them to sound mildly annoyed (“See you this evening” vs “See you this evening.”) or leaving them out to add a bit of levity or impatience (“What shall we have for dinner?” vs “What shall we have for dinner”).

In the Washington Post in 2015, writer Rachel Feltman pointed out that the full stop is no longer the correct way to end a sentence, but “an act of psychological warfare against your friends.” Another writer, Ben Crair, had his own take on the subtleties of 21st century comms: “You could drive yourself insane,” he said, “trying to decode the hidden messages in other people’s punctuation.” He’s right. The grammatical style of messages can convey just as much information as the content; anyone who has studied the precise number of kisses appended to messages between themselves and a person they’re dating will know exactly what Crair is talking about.

Full stop. Or not.

With full stops wilfully discarded and sentences butting up against each other with insouciant glee, capital letters have a range of exciting alternative roles to perform, including SHOUTING IN ANGER or Sarcastic Indication That Something Is Of Great Importance.

Fortunately, we’ve managed to largely escape THE ERA WHEN PEOPLE NEW TO COMPUTERS WOULD TYPE MESSAGES THAT RESEMBLED A TELEGRAM; these days it’s more common for people not to use capitals at all. Although those dedicated to the lower-case cause can often find themselves battling against auto-correct software which might insist that you call Stuart “Stuart”, even if you would rather keep Stuart in his place by calling him “stuart”.

The comma has also undergone a purging. Back in 2014, a professor of English at Columbia University, John McWhorter, suggested that the removal of commas would result in “so little loss of clarity that there could even be a case made for not using commas at all,” but it’s not as if we needed any encouragement. We seized this opportunity with our thumbs and forefingers. “i have a couple of mp3s left in my collection that I downloaded in my first semester at uni in 1999 and I still kind of prefer them over good copies for weird memory evocation even though they are empirically less good to listen to” tweeted a friend of mine the other evening, abandoning the comma and giving readers the opportunity to insert their own pauses into the flow, if that’s what they felt like doing.

Linguist Gretchen McCulloch, who has a book out about the way we use language on the internet, explored in a 2015 article how a free-flowing absence of punctuation can communicate a “disingenuous deadpan snark” (e.g. “I already know the answer to this question but I’m just going to say it anyway,” or “I might be hoping you’ll laugh, but I’m definitely not asking you for it.”)

Sentences can be very easily imbued with comedic, lower- case deadpanism (“the saddest part about self driving cars will be all the times people die mid trip and then ur dinner guests or pizza guy will arrive dead” – @bourgeoisalien), and you see writers doing it on the internet all the time. They know where full stops, commas and capitals should go, but choose to leave them out, the linguistic equivalent of a shrug or a raised eyebrow.

Grammar in the age of the internet

We’re evidently not the first to play with grammar in a reckless fashion. James Joyce or E. E. Cummings would have spurned the grammatical assistance offered by Microsoft Word by heading straight for Preferences and turning off the wavy lines. But the informal nature of online communication has brought about a linguistic freedom that constantly throws up new stylistic quirks.

HTML tags are a geeky but widely understood way of annotating messages with subtext , and whole theses could be written (and probably have been) about emoticons and emoji.

Then! We! Have! Exclamation! Marks! (or, God help us, clap emojis) Between! Every! Word!

Abbreviations are endemic; “thx” is a neat space saver, sure, but something like “o rly?” successfully conveys an exasperation that “oh really?” could never hope to achieve.

And these things take on new meaning over the course of their lifespan; in the late 1990s on Usenet, the abbreviation HTH HAND (hope that helps, have a nice day) eventually came loaded with so much withering sarcasm that you feared being on the end of it.

We have technology to thank for these new idiosyncrasies. Tiny, screen-based keyboards encourage a certain grammatical minimalism, but at the same time emoji and their kin have expanded our palette of expression in ways that could never have been foreseen.

The imaginative linguistic leaps we make whenever a new technology is dumped in our lap keep us one step ahead of the computers that enable them; computers are designed to remember the rules, and we’re designed to break them.

“Language is about having a way to communicate that suits your purpose,” said Professor Louise Ravelli from the University of New South Wales in an interview with the Sydney Morning Herald back in 2014. “People will find a way to express themselves regardless of whether they are technically correct. Communication is about being functional. If someone can’t make themselves understood they will work at it until they are understood.”

In that sense, the imposition of grammatical standards in the internet age feels faintly ridiculous. Why on earth would anyone tell us how to properly communicate when we’re making such a good fist of it? But we can’t unlearn what we’ve been told is correct, and so misplaced apostrophes can still look hideous, and we may judge those who get them wrong, and then angrily voice our displeasure on social media while making grammatical mistakes of our own while doing so (a prime example of what’s known, for obvious reasons, as “Muphry’s Law”).

Rules are a-changing

Every generation thinks that the subsequent one is hell bent on despoiling, demeaning and destroying the language that they grew up with; many of us may currently feel as if we’re being ushered hurriedly into an unpleasant room where “sick” means “marvellous”; and “banter” means “insults”. But, you know, I’m equally responsible for helping to change the meaning of “disinterested” to “uninterested”, and apparently I’ve been abusing the word “hopefully” for most of my adult life, too.

Grammar has its uses. We’re not going to suddenly abandon spaces between words and revert to the texts of pre-9th century Europe wheretheletterswereallbuncheduptogether. But mass communication has made us more aware of the things that matter, and the things that don’t.

Back in 2014 it pained me when I learned that Cambridge City Council was removing apostrophes from street signs (supposedly to avoid confusion for the emergency services) and felt pleased when they reversed their decision, but maybe it’s time to acknowledge that we’re sashaying into a world where apostrophes and commas are optional and where the full stop is going the way of the pilcrow (¶).

Grammar is ever evolving, and outside the examination room we’re allowed to express ourselves however we like. It’s those erratic, forceful, affectionate or funny grammatical tics that make modern communication so fascinating. Even if the computer says that we done done it wrong.

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Things to Know about Free Form Templates

A single file that includes numerous supporting files is commonly known as a form template. Some files will define or show the controls to appear on the free form templates or design. The collections of these supporting files or templates are also called form files. While designing free form templates, users should be able to […]

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A single file that includes numerous supporting files is commonly known as a form template. Some files will define or show the controls to appear on the free form templates or design. The collections of these supporting files or templates are also called form files. While designing free form templates, users should be able to view and also work with the form files. 

It will create a new free form template by copying and storing those files within a folder. A form template (.XSN) file designing or creation of a single file will include various supporting files. Users may fill out the online form by accessing the .XML form file, which is a form template.

Designing Free Form Templates

There are numerous processes that define free form template design, and are as follows:

  • Designing the form’s appearance – the instructional text, labels, and controls
  • Controls will assist with user interaction behavior on the form template. You can design a specific section to appear or disappear when the user chooses a particular option
  • Whether the form template may include some additional views. For a permit application form design, for example, you have to provide different views for each person. One view especially for the electrical contractor, next for the receiving agent, and finally, the investigator. He or she will deny or approve the permit application
  • Next, you need to know how & where to store the form data. Designing free from templates will allow users to submit their data within the database either online or direct access. If not, they can also store the same in any specific shared folder
  • It is essential to design the other elements, colors, and fonts within the form template
  • Users must be able to personalize the form. Allowing users to include various rows within the optional section, repeating section, or a repeating table
  • Users should receive a notification when they forget to input a mandatory field or make mistakes within the form
  • After completing the free form templates design, you can publish the same online using a .XSN file format

Club Signup Form

A simple registration form can help your Club Signup Form creation process go smoother. This signup form could be an ideal solution for a new club membership registration for any organization or club.

Application Form

Application form templates are much easier to use & set-up to streamline your application process. You can customize this online form and utilize the same for numerous applications. Make use of this application form as a job application form, volunteer applications, contest entries, or high school scholarship applications. It is an ideal solution for scholarship programs, nonprofit organizations, business owners, and many such users and use cases.

Scheduling Form

Scheduling form templates are handy and can be used for numerous appointment booking requirements. A scheduling form is also utilized for various appointment scheduling or online reservations and booking purposes. Regardless of your business requirement, it is easy to customize the form template.

Concept Testing Survey

While testing a new design or concept, it is essential to gather the responses quickly. Freeform templates for a concept testing survey make it much easier to gather product feedback and reach the target audience. It is essential to conduct market research while planning to release a new product. A mobile-friendly form will allow you to utilize the survey questions for collecting the product’s consumer input quickly.

Credit Card Order Form

It is not always a complex process to provide an online credit card payment form for the customers. This form template will allow you to access numerous services or products for collecting card payment information. You can utilize this yet-another endless and simple payment form.

Employment Application Form

The employment application form for recruitment will assist the HR team to gather the required information from candidates. During the interview or application process, you can easily remove any expensive follow-ups. Some of the fields are contact information, employment history, useful information, etc. as well as an outline of the job description, consent for background checks, military service record, anticipated start date, any special skills, and many more. It is optional to enable notifications for the form owners to receive an alert or email when a new employment application is submitted.

Source: https://1reddrop.com/2020/10/24/things-to-know-about-free-form-templates/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=things-to-know-about-free-form-templates

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Are Chatbots Vulnerable? Best Practices to Ensure Chatbots Security

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Rebecca James
credit IT Security Guru

A simple answer is a Yes! Chatbots are vulnerable. Some specific threats and vulnerabilities risk chatbots security and prove them a wrong choice for usage. With the advancement in technology, hackers can now easily target the hidden infrastructure of a chatbot.

The chatbot’s framework has an opportunity for the attackers ready to inject the malicious codes or commands that might unlock the secured data of the customers and your business. However, the extent of the attack’s complexity and success might depend on the messaging platform’s security.

Are you thinking about how chatbots are being exposed to attacks? Well! Hackers are now highly advanced. They attack the chatbots in two ways, i.e., either by social engineering attack or by technical attacks.

  • An evil bot can impersonate a legal user by using backup data of the possibly targeted victims by social engineering attack. All such data is collected from various sources like the dark web and social media platforms. Sometimes they use both sources to gain access to some other user’s data by a bot providing such services.
  • The second attack is technical. Here also attackers can turn themself into evil bots who exchange messages with the other bots. The purpose is to look for some vulnerabilities in the target’s profile that can be later exploited. It can eventually lead to the compromise of the entire framework that protects the data and can ultimately lead to data theft.

To ensure chatbots security, the bot creators must ensure that all the security processes are in place and are responsible for restoring the architecture. The data flow via the chatbot system should also be encrypted both in transit and rest.

To further aid you in chatbot security, this article discusses five best practices to ensure chatbots security. So, let’s read on.

The following mentioned below are some of the best practices to ensure the security of chatbots.

It’s always feared that data in transit can be spoofed or tampered with the sophistication of cybercriminals’ technology and smartness. It’s essential to implement end-to-end encryption to ensure that your entire conversation remains secured. It means that by encryption, you can prevent any third person other than the sender and the receiver from peeping into your messages.

Encryption importance can’t be neglected in the cyber world, and undoubtedly the chatbot designers are adapting this method to make sure that their chatbot security is right on the point. For more robust encryption, consider using business VPNs that encrypt your internet traffic and messages. With a VPN, you can also prevent the threats and vulnerabilities associated with chatbots.

1. 8 Proven Ways to Use Chatbots for Marketing (with Real Examples)

2. How to Use Texthero to Prepare a Text-based Dataset for Your NLP Project

3. 5 Top Tips For Human-Centred Chatbot Design

4. Chatbot Conference Online

Moreover, it’s a crucial feature of other chat services like WhatsApp and other giant tech developers. They are anxious to guarantee security via encryption even when there’s strict surveillance by the government. Such encryption is to fulfill the legal principles of the GDPR that says that companies should adopt measures to encrypt the users’ data.

User identity authentication is a process that verifies if the user is having secure and valid credentials like the username and password. The login credentials are exchanged for having a secure authentication token used during the complete user session. If you haven’t, then you should try out this method for boosting user security.

Authentication timeouts are another way to ensure your chatbots security. This method is more common in banks as the token can be used for the predetermined time.

Moreover, two-factor authentication is yet another method to prove user identity. Users are asked to verify identity either by a text message or email, depending on the way they’ve chosen. It also helps in the authorization process as it permits access to the right person and ensures that information isn’t mishandled or breached.

The self-destructive message features open another way for enhancing chatbot security. This option comes in handy when the user provides their personally identifiable information. Such information can pose a serious threat to user privacy and should be destroyed or deleted within a set period. This method is handier when you’re associated with backing or any other financial chatbots.

By using secure protocols, you can also ensure chatbots security. Every security system, by default, has the HTTPS protocol installed in it. If you aren’t an IT specialist, you can also identify it when you view the search bar’s URL. As long as your data is being transferred via HTTPS protocol and encrypted connections, TLS and SSL, your data is secured from vulnerabilities and different types of cyber-attacks.

Thus, make sure to use secure protocols for enhanced security. Remember that when Chatbots are new, the coding and system used to protect it is the same as the existing HIMs. They interconnect with their security systems and have more than one encryption layer to protect their users’ security.

Do you know what the most significant security vulnerability that’s challenging to combat is? Wondering? Well! It’s none other than human error. User behavior must be resolved using commercial applications because they might continue to believe that the systems are flawed.

No doubt that an unprecedented number of users label the significance of digital security, but still, humans are the most vulnerable in the system. Chatbot security continues to be a real big problem until the problem of user errors comes to an end. And this needs education on various forms of digital technology, including chatbots.

Here the customers aren’t the ones who are to be blamed. Like customers, employees can make a mistake, and they do make most of the time. To prevent this, the chatbot developers should form a defined strategy, including the IT experts, and train them on the system’s safe use. Doing so enhances the team’s skillset and allows them to engage with the chatbot system confidently.

However, clients can’t be educated like the employees. But at least you can provide them a detailed road map of securely interacting with the system. It might involve other professionals who can successfully engage customers and educate them on the right way to interact with the chatbots.

Several emerging technologies are keen to play a vital role in protecting the chatbots against threats and vulnerabilities in the upcoming time, among all the most potent method behavior analytics and Artificial Intelligence developments.

  • User Behavioral Analytics: It’s a process that uses applications to study the patterns of user behavior. It enables them to implement complex algorithms and statistical analysis to detect any abnormal behavior that possibly represents a security threat. Analytical tools are quite common and powerful; thus, this methodology can become a fundamental component of the chatbot system.
  • Developments in AI: Artificial technology is a two-end sword that offers benefits and threats simultaneously. But, as AI is predicted to fulfill its potential, it will provide an extra security level to the systems. It is mainly because of its ability to wipe a large amount of data for abnormalities that recognizes security breaches and threats.

The Bottom Line

Security concerns have always been there with new technologies and bring new threats and vulnerabilities with them. Although chatbots are an emerging technology, the security practices that stand behind them are present for a long time and are effective. Chatbots are the innovative development of the current era, and emerging technologies like AI will transform the way businesses might interact with the customers and ensure their security.

Source: https://chatbotslife.com/are-chatbots-vulnerable-best-practices-to-ensure-chatbots-security-d301b9f6ce17?source=rss—-a49517e4c30b—4

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Best Technology Stacks For Mobile App Development

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What’s the Best Tech Stack for Mobile App Development? Read To Know

Which is the Best Tech Stack for Mobile Application Development? Kotlin, React Native, Ionic, Xamarin, Objective-C, Swift, JAVA… Which One?

Image Source: Google

Technology Stack for smartphones is like what blood is for the human body. Without a technology stack, it is hard even to imagine smartphones. Having a smartphone in uncountable hands is rising exponentially. For tech pundits, this is one unmissable aspect of our digital experience wherein tech stack is as critical as ROI.

The riveting experience for a successful mobile app predominantly depends on technology stacks.

The unbiased selection of mobile apps development language facilitates developers to build smooth, functional, efficient apps. They help businesses tone down the costs, focus on revenue-generation opportunities. Most importantly, it provides customers with jaw-dropping amazement, giving a reason to have it installed on the indispensable gadget in present times.

In today’s time, when there are over 5 million apps globally, and by all conscience, these are whopping no.s and going to push the smartphone industry further. But now you could see mobile app development every ‘nook and corner.’ But the fact is not who provides what but understanding the behavioural pattern of users.

So the pertinent question is, which is the ideal tech stack to use for mobile app development?

In native mobile app development, all toolkits, mobile apps development language, and the SDK are supported and provided by operating system vendors. Native app development thus allows developers to build apps compatible with specific OS environments; it is suitable for device-specific hardware and software. Hence it renders optimized performance using the latest technology. However, since Android & iOS imparts — — a unique platform for development, businesses have to develop multiple mobile apps for each platform.

1. Waz

2. Pokemon Go

3. Lyft

1.Java: The popularity of JAVA still makes it one of the official programming languages for android app development until the introduction of Kotlin. Java itself is at the core of the Android OS. Many of us even see the logo of Java when the device reboots. However, contradictions with Oracle (which owns the license to Java) made Google shift to open-source Java SDK for versions starting from Android 7.0 Nougat

2.Kotlin: According to Google I/O conference in 2019- Kotlin is the officially supported language for Android app development. It is entirely based on Java but has a few additions which make it simpler and easier to work.

1. 8 Proven Ways to Use Chatbots for Marketing (with Real Examples)

2. How to Use Texthero to Prepare a Text-based Dataset for Your NLP Project

3. 5 Top Tips For Human-Centred Chatbot Design

4. Chatbot Conference Online

It’s my gut feeling like other developers to say that Kotlin is simply better. It has a leaner, more straightforward and concise code than open-cell Java, and several other advantages about handling null-pointer exceptions and more productive coding.

HERE’S A Programming Illustration Defining the CONCISENESS OF KOTLIN CODE

public class Address {

private String street;

private int streetNumber;

private String postCode;

private String city;

private Country country;

public Address(String street, int streetNumber, String postCode, String city, Country country) {

this.street = street;

this.streetNumber = streetNumber;

this.postCode = postCode;

this.city = city;

this.country = country;

}

@Override

public boolean equals(Object o) {

if (this == o) return true;

if (o == null || getClass() != o.getClass()) return false;

Address address = (Address) o;

if (streetNumber != address.streetNumber) return false;

if (!street.equals(address.street)) return false;

if (!postCode.equals(address.postCode)) return false;

if (!city.equals(address.city)) return false;

return country == address.country;

}

@Override

public int hashCode() {

int result = street.hashCode();

result = 31 * result + streetNumber;

result = 31 * result + postCode.hashCode();

result = 31 * result + city.hashCode();

result = 31 * result + (country != null ? country.hashCode() : 0);

return result;

}

@Override

public String toString() {

return “Address{“ +

“street=’” + street + ‘\’’ +

“, streetNumber=” + streetNumber +

“, postCode=’” + postCode + ‘\’’ +

“, city=’” + city + ‘\’’ +

“, country=” + country +

‘}’;

}

public String getStreet() {

return street;

}

public void setStreet(String street) {

this.street = street;

}

public int getStreetNumber() {

return streetNumber;

}

public void setStreetNumber(int streetNumber) {

this.streetNumber = streetNumber;

}

public String getPostCode() {

return postCode;

}

public void setPostCode(String postCode) {

this.postCode = postCode;

}

public String getCity() {

return city;

}

public void setCity(String city) {

this.city = city;

}

public Country getCountry() {

return country;

}

public void setCountry(Country country) {

this.country = country;

}

}

class Address(street:String, streetNumber:Int, postCode:String, city:String, country:Country) {

var street: String

var streetNumber:Int = 0

var postCode:String

var city: String

var country:Country

init{

this.street = street

this.streetNumber = streetNumber

this.postCode = postCode

this.city = city

this.country = country

}

public override fun equals(o:Any):Boolean {

if (this === o) return true

if (o == null || javaClass != o.javaClass) return false

Val address = o as Address

if (streetNumber != address.streetNumber) return false

if (street != address.street) return false

if (postCode != address.postCode) return false

if (city != address.city) return false

return country === address.country

}

public override fun hashCode():Int {

val result = street.hashCode()

result = 31 * result + streetNumber

result = 31 * result + postCode.hashCode()

result = 31 * result + city.hashCode()

result = 31 * result + (if (country != null) country.hashCode() else 0)

return result

}

public override fun toString():String {

return (“Address{“ +

“street=’” + street + ‘\’’.toString() +

“, streetNumber=” + streetNumber +

“, postCode=’” + postCode + ‘\’’.toString() +

“, city=’” + city + ‘\’’.toString() +

“, country=” + country +

‘}’.toString())

}

}

I’d say KOTLIN IS THE BEST FIND FOR ANDROID APP DEVELOPMENT.Google has dug deeper with some plans ahead since announcing it as an official language. Moreover, it signals Google’s first steps in moving away from the Java ecosystem, which is imminent, considering its recent adventures with Flutter and the upcoming Fuchsia OS.

Objective C is the same for iOS what Java is for Android. Objective-C, a superset of the C programming language( with objective -oriented capabilities and dynamic run time) initially used to build the core of iOS operating system across the Apple devices. However, Apple soon started using swift, which diminishes the importance of Objective -C in comparison to previous compilations.

Apple introduced Swift as an alternative to Objective-C in late 2015, and it has since been continued to be the primary language for iOS app development.Swift is more functional than Objective-C, less prone to errors, dynamic libraries help reduce the size and app without ever compromising performance.

Now, you would remember the comparison we’ve done with Java and kotlin. In iOS, objective-C is much older than swift with much more complicated syntax. Giving cringeworthy feel to beginners to get started with Objective-C.

Image Source: Google

THIS IS WHAT YOU DO WHEN INITIALIZING AN ARRAY IN OBJECTIVE-C:

NSMutableArray * array =[[NSMutableArray alloc] init];

NOW LOOK AT HOW THE SAME THING IS DONE IN SWIFT:

var array =[Int]()

SWIFT IS MUCH MORE ` WHAT WE’VE COVERED HERE.

In cross-platform app development, developers build a single mobile app that can be used on multiple OS platforms. It is made possible by creating an app with a shared common codebase, adapted to various platforms.

Image Source: Google

Popular Cross-platform apps:

  1. Instagram
  2. Skype
  3. LinkedIN

React Native is a mobile app development framework based on JavaScript. It is used and supported by one of the biggest social media platforms- Facebook. In cross-platform apps built using React Native, the application logic is coded in JavaScript, whereas its UI is entirely native. This blog about building a React Native app is worth reading if you want to know why its stakes are higher.

Xamarin is a Microsoft-supported cross-platform mobile app development tool that uses the C# programming language. Using Xamarin, developers can build mobile apps for multiple platforms, sharing over 90% of the same code.

TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript, and is a statically-typed programming language supported by Microsoft. TypeScript can be used along with the React Native framework to make full use of its error detection features when writing code for react components.

In Hybrid mobile app development, developers build web apps using HTML, CSS & JavaScript and then wrap the code in a native shell. It allows the app to be deployed as a regular app, with functionality at a level between a fully native app and a website rendered(web browser).

Image Source: Google
  1. Untappd
  2. Amazon App Store
  3. Evernote

Apache Cordova is an open-source hybrid mobile app development framework that uses JavaScript for logic operations and while HTML5 & CSS3 for rendering. PhoneGap is a commercialized, free, and open-source distribution of Apache Cordova owned by Adobe. The PhoneGap platform was developed to deliver non-proprietary, free, and open-source app development solutions powered by the web.

Ionic is a hybrid app development framework based on AngularJS. Similar to other hybrid platforms, it uses HTML, CSS & JavaScript to build mobile apps. Ionic is primarily focused on the front-end UI experience and integrates well with frameworks such as Angular, Vue, and ReactJS.

To summarize, there are 3 types of mobile apps- Native mobile apps, Cross-platform mobile apps, and Hybrid mobile apps; each offers unique technologies, frameworks, and tools of their own. I have enlisted here the best mobile app technology stacks you could use for mobile app development.

The technologies, tools, and frameworks mentioned here are used in some of the most successful apps. With support from an expert, a well-established mobile app development company, that may give much-needed impetus in the dynamic mobile app development world.

Source: https://chatbotslife.com/best-technology-stacks-for-mobile-app-development-6fed70b62778?source=rss—-a49517e4c30b—4

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